Copper wire sizes must have invented by an engineer because it follows a pattern (makes sense) unlike, say, machine tool number drill sizes. The B&S gage diameter increase (and decrease) from size to size goes to the twentieth root of 10; approximately 1.122018... The resistance varies by the tenth root of 10; 1.2589..., the square of 10(0.05) because area goes to the square of diameter. Cool, huh?, I mean 'cool' that there is a geometric progression to change in size. (Partially Off topic: Piano notes go to 2(1/12) key-2-key, 12 notes gets an octave)It turns out that #10 gage copper wire at ambient temperature has a resistance of 0.001 ohms per foot (1 Ohm per 1000 Ft). Copper has a density of 0.323 Lb/CuIn. Now you have all you need to know to reproduce the entire copper wire table of diameters, resistance and weight.
>Note(diameters): #10Ga is 101.9 mils, #20Ga is 32.2 mils, #30Ga is 10.19 mils, #40Ga is 3.22 mils; easy to remember (and easy to compute..., What would we do without numbers?)
REF: The Capacitance equation is from Radio Amateurs Handbook (circa 1968) P-24